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.. _gbt_classification:
Classification Gradient Boosted Trees
=====================================
Gradient boosted trees classification is the special case of gradient
boosted trees. For more details, see Gradient Boosted Trees.
Details
*******
Given n feature vectors :math:`X = \{x_1 = (x_{11}, \ldots, x_{1p}), \ldots, x_n = (x_{n1}, \ldots, x_{np}) \}` of n
p-dimensional feature vectors and a vector of class labels :math:`y = (y_1, \ldots, y_n)`, where
:math:`y_i \in \{0, 1, \ldots, C-1\}` and
C is the number of classes, which describes the class to which the
feature vector :math:`x_i` belongs, the problem is to build a gradient
boosted trees classifier.
Training Stage
--------------
Gradient boosted trees classification follows the algorithmic
framework of gradient boosted trees training. For a classification
problem with K classes, K regression trees are constructed on each
iteration, one for each output class. The loss function is
cross-entropy (multinomial deviance):
.. math::
L(y,f) = -\sum_{k=1}^{K}(I(y=k)\ln{p_{k}(x)})
where :math:`{p}_{k}(x)=\mathrm{ }\frac{{e}^{{f}_{k}\left(x\right)}}{\sum _{i=1}^{K}{e}^{{f}_{i}\left(x\right)}}`
Binary classification is a special case when single regression tree is trained on each iteration. The loss function is
.. math::
L(y,f) = -(y\cdot \ln{\sigma(f)} + (1-y)\ln(1- \sigma(f)))
where :math:`\sigma(f)=\frac{1}{1+ {e}^{-f}}`
Prediction Stage
----------------
Given the gradient boosted trees classifier model and vectors :math:`(x_1, \ldots, x_r)`, the problem is to calculate labels for
those vectors. To solve the problem for each given feature vector
:math:`x_i`, the algorithm finds the leaf node in a tree in the
ensemble, and the leaf node gives the tree response. The algorithm
computes a sum of responses of all the trees for each class and
chooses the label y corresponding to the class with the maximal
response value (highest class probability).
Usage of Training Alternative
*****************************
To build a Gradient Boosted Trees Classification model using methods of the Model Builder class of Gradient Boosted Tree Classification,
complete the following steps:
- Create a Gradient Boosted Tree Classification model builder using a constructor with the required number of classes and trees.
- Create a decision tree and add nodes to it:
- Use the ``createTree`` method with the required number of nodes in a tree and a label of the class for which the tree is created.
- Use the ``addSplitNode`` and addLeafNode methods to add split and leaf nodes to the created tree.
See the note below describing the decision tree structure.
- After you add all nodes to the current tree, proceed to creating the next one in the same way.
- Use the ``getModel`` method to get the trained Gradient Boosted Trees Classification model after all trees have been created.
.. note::
Each tree consists of internal nodes (called non-leaf or split nodes) and external nodes (leaf nodes).
Each split node denotes a feature test that is a Boolean expression, for example,
f < ``featureValue`` or f = ``featureValue``, where f is a feature and ``featureValue`` is a constant.
The test type depends on the feature type: continuous, categorical, or ordinal.
For more information on the test types, see :ref:`decision_tree`.
The inducted decision tree is a binary tree, meaning that each non-leaf node has exactly two branches: true and false.
Each split node contains featureIndex, the index of the feature used for the feature test in this node,
and ``featureValue``, the constant for the Boolean expression in the test.
Each leaf node contains a classLabel, the predicted class for this leaf.
For more information on decision trees, see :ref:`decision_tree`.
Add nodes to the created tree in accordance with the pre-calculated structure of the tree.
Check that the leaf nodes do not have children nodes and that the splits have exactly two children.
Examples
--------
.. tabs::
.. tab:: C++ (CPU)
- :cpp_example:`gbt_cls_traversed_model_builder.cpp `
.. tab:: Python*
- :daal4py_example:`gbt_cls_traversed_model_builder.py`
Batch Processing
****************
Gradient boosted trees classification follows the general workflow
described in :ref:`gb_trees` and :ref:`classification_usage_model`
Training
--------
In addition to parameters of the gradient boosted trees described
in :ref:`gb_trees_batch`, the gradient boosted trees classification training algorithm has
the following parameters:
.. tabularcolumns:: |\Y{0.15}|\Y{0.15}|\Y{0.7}|
.. list-table:: Training Parameters for Gradient Boosted Trees Classification (Batch Processing)
:widths: 10 10 60
:header-rows: 1
:align: left
:class: longtable
* - Parameter
- Default Value
- Description
* - ``algorithmFPType``
- ``float``
- The floating-point type that the algorithm uses for intermediate computations. Can be ``float`` or ``double``.
* - ``method``
- ``defaultDense``
- The computation method used by the gradient boosted trees regression.
The only training method supported so far is the default dense method.
* - ``nClasses``
- Not applicable
- The number of classes. A required parameter.
* - ``loss``
- ``crossEntropy``
- Loss function type.
Prediction
----------
In addition to the parameters of a classifier, the gradient boosted
trees classifier has the following parameters at the prediction stage:
.. tabularcolumns:: |\Y{0.15}|\Y{0.15}|\Y{0.7}|
.. list-table:: Prediction Parameters for Gradient Boosted Trees Classification (Batch Processing)
:widths: 10 10 60
:header-rows: 1
:align: left
:class: longtable
* - Parameter
- Default Value
- Description
* - ``algorithmFPType``
- ``float``
- The floating-point type that the algorithm uses for intermediate computations. Can be ``float`` or ``double``.
* - ``method``
- ``defaultDense``
- The computation method used by the gradient boosted trees regression.
The only training method supported so far is the default dense method.
* - ``nClasses``
- Not applicable
- The number of classes. A required parameter.
* - ``numIterations``
- :math:`0`
- An integer parameter that indicates how many trained iterations of the
model should be used in prediction. The default value :math:`0` denotes no
limit. All the trained trees should be used.
Examples
********
.. tabs::
.. tab:: C++ (CPU)
Batch Processing:
- :cpp_example:`gbt_cls_dense_batch.cpp `
.. tab:: Python*
Batch Processing:
- :daal4py_example:`gradient_boosted_classification_batch.py`
- :daal4py_example:`gradient_boosted_classification_traverse_batch.py`